Social Studies Diplomacy And Deterrence Essay


need. Establishing good relations is also a way of making sure that Singaporewould not have many enemies. Hence, diplomacy is an effective way in ensuringthat Singapores sovereignty is protected.However, Singapore cannot depend solely on diplomatic ties. Singapore must beable to protect itself against any form of threats, be it non-state aggressors orcountries. Hence, deterrence is also an essential factor in protecting Singaporessovereignty.Deterrence is the measures taken to prevent any possible attacks or protect against any threats from countries or non-state aggressors such as terrorist.Singapore must be militarily prepared in order to deter any attacks andSingapore prepares through Total Defence (TD) and National Service (NS).NS was first introduced in 1967, conscripting Singaporean males of 18 years. NSis important to Singapore as Singapore has a small population and was unable tosupport a professional army. Hence, in order to ensure that Singapore is able toprotect itself militarily despite its limitations, a civilian armed force is formedwith the introduction of NS. NS allows men from different backgrounds to forgecloser bonds as they share common military experiences and a common destinyof protecting Singapore and their loved ones. It also ensures that all Singaporeanmales are militarily prepared in times of threat.TD prepares all of Singapore for all kinds of threats and challenges faced bySingapore, compassing of Social Defence, Economic Defence, PsychologicalDefence, Civil Defence and Military Defence. The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF)covers the Military Defence, making sure that the armed forces are alwaysprepared for conflict while the other aspects of TD prepares the nation as awhole. Social Defence ensures that Singapore would remain united in times of unrest, Economic Defence ensures that Singapores economy would not collapseunder pressure, Civil Defence prepares citizens for civil emergencies whilePsychological Defence show Singaporeans that Singapore would be able tocombat against threats. TD deters potential aggressors from attacking Singapore,as they know that they would be facing not just the SAF but also the whole of Singapore.Deterrence measures practiced by Singapore prevent potential aggressors fromattacking Singapore and prepare Singapore against threats. With these measuresin place, Singapore is able to effectively combat against threats and aggressors aswell as keep Singapore safe and secure. Also, it bands Singaporeans together asthey know that they all have a role to play in ensuring that Singapore remainsindependent. Hence, deterrence is an effectively way in ensuring that Singaporessovereignty is protected.Diplomatic ties boost Singapores economy and allow Singapore to maintainfriendly ties with other nations, reducing the number of enemies, and threats,that Singapore has. It also gives Singapore the insurance that it would be able toreceive help from other nations when in times of need. However, diplomacy isnot the ultimate plan in ensuring that Singapore remains independent. No matter

Social Studies Notes (Sec 3 textbook) 

Ch 6:  Managing Peace and Security:

          Deterrence and Diplomacy

Why do conflicts occur among countries?

*to protect national interest

*fight over territory, compete over scarce resources, do not share the same ideological beliefs

Competing Territory

Due to its importance in terms of defence and national pride

To extend control by taking over territories which do not belong to the country that attacks

Conflict over Border

China was unhappy that India had inherited the border areas, Aksai Chin Plateau and the North-East-Frontier Agency when India gained independence from the British

Problem: Difficult to have a clear border between India and China because much of their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas

1958: China announced that it had built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau

Indian government was angry as it felt that the road built had violated its territorial rights

1959: fighting broke out in the Aksai Chin Plateau and the North-East-Frontier Agency

Result: China occupied territories

             Indian government demanded return of territories

             1962: War broke out between India and China

Outcome: Territorial conflict not resolved but India and China signed an agreement in 

                 2005 to deal with the matter in a reasonable manner

Conflict over scarce resources

when resources are necessary for survival and economic growth, those with less resources may use force to gain more

1970: Britain and Iceland: conflict over fishing grounds

            Iceland depended on fishing industry for its survival

            Iceland felt that its national interest was threatened

Conflict over ideological differences

Conflict arises because of: difference in values and beliefs

North Korea (Communism) fought South Korea (Democracy) due to different 

   ideological beliefs

Other parties involved were: USA, Soviet Union, China and UN

How do countries manage conflicts?

*Criticise each other openly

*Reduce trade with the conflicting country as a form of protest

*Resolve conflicts through peaceful negotiations

*Seek help from regional (ASEAN) and international (UN) organizations to resolve   conflict

*Start a war

*Display the strength of their military force through military exercises as a warning to 

   other countries

* Cut diplomatic ties with each other

*Protest to the other country through their representatives 


How does Singapore manage conflict and ensure national security?

Deterrence: measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from 


Measures to deter aggressors: 

*Carrying out military exercises

*Sharing information among countries

*Installing CCTV cameras at train stations

*Maintaining military installations

Why is deterrence necessary?

*to provide security for the people

* to give investors the confidence that it is worth to invest in the country

*when British withdrew its military force from Singapore in 1966, the Singapore 

  government decided to build its own army

How is deterrence practiced?

A Citizen Armed Forces

*the government built a citizen armed force in order to ensure that there would be a peaceful environment to develop the economy

*1967: NS introduced

*NS: bonded men, developing in them a sense of loyalty, patriotism and a shared 

        destiny for Singapore

3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces

*SAF: keeps up with advances in info-communication technology

*3rd Generation Armed Forces: ^maximizes defensive capabilities through modern


                                                 ^equip soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond

                                                   flexibly in peacetime

                                                   Aim: to create an intelligent defence force – to help 

                                                           destroy the enemy quickly      

Singapore’s Defence Industry

*SAF: self-reliant in essential defence weapons and equipment

*Defence Science and Technology Agency:

  a. provide cost-effective and modern  technology to SAF and Ministry of Defence

  b. buys and upgrades weapons

  c. develops new weapon systems for the SAF’s use

  d. conducts defence-related R&D 

*defence industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF

RESULT: Singapore has overcome its constraints through its own innovations

Total Defence

*Total Defence preparedness deters potential aggressors as they will have to face 

  the entire nation and not just the armed forces

Civil Defence: civil emergencies, role of SCDF

Economic Defence: role of Singapore Workforce Development Agency

Social Defence: Community Development Council, Inter-Racial Confidence Circel

Psychological Defence: having the will and mental strength to overcome challenges

Multi-agency coordination on security

*National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCC): meets regularly to plan national 

 security strategies and policies

*NSCC: works together with commercial and private parties to effectively combat any 

  form of major terror threats

Result: prevents, protects and effectively responds to any security

Military co-operation with other countries

*Singapore actively fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of other countries

Bilateral military agreements and exercises

*allowing Signapore to train in the countries the agreement was signed with

*Singapore conducts regular military training with neighbouring countries

Multi-lateral military agreements and exercises

*Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA):

 ^conducts exercises each year ot enhance their cooperation and coordination

 ^members could consult one another on the appropriate measures to be taken to 

   deter aggressor

What is diplomacy?

*the way countries manage or conduct relations with one another

Aim: a. promote common interests

         b. resolve conflicting interests in a peaceful manner  

         c. help each other in times of need  


Why is diplomacy necessary?

 *sense of inter-connectedness among countries 

*provides countries opportunity to pursue mutual interest

*helps countries resolve conflicts, differences, disagreements peacefully

How is diplomacy practiced?

*through, bilateral, regional and international relations

Bilateral Relations 

*one country establishes relationship with another country

*promote political, economic, cultural ties with Maysia and Indonesia

*Singapore provides medical aid

*Trading relationship with: Japan, USA, Germany

RESULT: allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from these 

                developed countries



Promote economic, social and cultural development of the region

Protect peace and stability of the region

Provide opportunities for member countries to discuss and resolve the differences peacefully


ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)

It aims to remove import taxes among Southeast Asian countries.

AFTA’s long-term aim is to 

integrate Asian economies into a single production base

create a regional market of 500 million people

remove all import taxes among member countries by 2015

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

Through ARF, ASEAN aims to provide an avenue for countries in the region to discuss security issues and resolve conflicts peacefully

Singapore and ASEAN

ASEAN provides Singapore with an avenue to discuss their differences with neighbouring countries peacefully

Through ASEAN, Singapore provides:

Education and Professional Exchange

Economic Cooperation and Assistance

Environmental Collaboration


It is an international organisation to preserve world  peace and prevent another major war.

Singapore and the UN

Membership allowed 

Singapore to be recognized as a sovereign state

Singapore to gain the help of experts in its industrial planning and development from the period of its independence to the late 1970s

UN Peacekeeping Operations

UN peacekeepers are soldiers and military officers, civilian police officers and civilian personnel, deployed from many countries


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