Lee J Cronbach Bibliography Mla

Guide to the Lee J. Cronbach Papers

Daniel Hartwig

Stanford University. Libraries. Department of Special Collections and University Archives October 2010

Copyright © 2015 The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. All rights reserved.


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Call Number: SC0238

Creator: Cronbach, Lee J., (Lee Joseph), 1916-2001.

Title: Lee J. Cronbach papers

Dates: 1940-2001

Physical Description: 8 Linear feet

Summary: Correspondence, memoranda, articles, proposals, notes, and other files relating to his teaching and committee work and several major publications, including PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND PERSONNEL DECISIONS and TOWARD REFORM OF PROGRAM EVALUATION. Correspondents include Patrick Moynihan, Jack Block, Marshall Cohen, John Feldhusen, Arthur I. Gates, Julian C. Stanley, Vivian Edmiston Todd, and Ralph W. Tyler. Collection also includes reports compiled for the US Office of Naval Research in London on psychological work and research being done in Europe, 1955-56.

Language(s): The materials are in English.

Repository: Department of Special Collections and University Archives

Green Library

557 Escondido Mall

Stanford, CA 94305-6064

Email: specialcollections@stanford.edu

Phone: (650) 725-1022

URL: http://library.stanford.edu/spc

Administrative Information


Gift of Professor Cronbach, 1981, and Janet Cronbach, 2003.

Information about Access

This collection is open for research.

Ownership & Copyright

All requests to reproduce, publish, quote from, or otherwise use collection materials must be submitted in writing to the Head of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, California 94304-6064. Consent is given on behalf of Special Collections as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission from the copyright owner. Such permission must be obtained from the copyright owner, heir(s) or assigns. See: http://library.stanford.edu/depts/spc/pubserv/permissions.html.

Restrictions also apply to digital representations of the original materials. Use of digital files is restricted to research and educational purposes.

Cite As

Lee J. Cronbach Papers (SC0238). Department of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, Calif.

Biographical/Historical Sketch

Lee J. Cronbach made major contributions in the fields of educational psychology and psychological testing. He earned his bachelor's degree at Fresno State College, 1934, his master's at the University of California-Berkeley, 1937, and his doctorate at the University of Chicago, 1940. He taught at the State College of Washington, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois before joining the Stanford faculty in 1964, where he was named Vida Jacks Professor of Education in 1967. His research interests were measurement theory, program evaluation, and instruction. He died in 2001.

Description of the Collection

Correspondence, memoranda, articles, proposals, notes, and other files relating to his teaching and committee work and several major publications, including PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND PERSONNEL DECISIONS and TOWARD REFORM OF PROGRAM EVALUATION. Correspondents include Patrick Moynihan, Jack Block, Marshall Cohen, John Feldhusen, Arthur I. Gates, Julian C. Stanley, Vivian Edmiston Todd, and Ralph W. Tyler. Collection also includes reports compiled for the US Office of Naval Research in London on psychological work and research being done in Europe, 1955-56.

Access Terms

Block, Jack, 1924-2010

Cohen, Marshall.

Cronbach, Janet

Cronbach, Lee J., (Lee Joseph), 1916-2001.

Feldhusen, John Frederick, 1926-

Gates, Arthur I. (Arthur Irving), 1890-1972.

Moynihan, Daniel P. (Daniel Patrick), 1927-2003

Stanford University. Graduate School of Education. Faculty.

Stanley, Julian C.

Todd, Vivian Edmiston.

Tyler, Ralph Winfred, 1902-

United States. Office of Naval Research. Branch Office, London.

Educational accountability.

Educational psychology.

Evaluation research (Social action programs)

Psychological tests.

Collection Contents

Box 1, Folder 1

Personal – historical, 1963-79

Box 1, Folder 2

Frankel Archives 1973-75 [correspondence re Cronbach's article "Five Decades of Public Controversy over Mental Testing"]

Box 1, Folder 3

Russell Sage Foundation, 1978-79

Box 1, Folder 4

Moynihan, Patrick – correspondence, 1975, 1978

Box 1, Folder 5

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1974 [proposal for study of school desegregation]

Box 1, Folder 6

Carnegie Study for Training Professional Educators, correspondence, 1966-70

Box 1, Folder 7

Working paper 16 – (1 of 2)

Box 1, Folder 8

Working paper 16 – (2 of 2)

Box 1, Folder 9

Project memos, notes, etc., 1959

Box 1, Folder 10

Outlines on "A Systematic approach to Generalizability and Reliability", 1959

Box 1, Folder 11

Committee of N – working material, 1977

Box 1, Folder 12

Committee of N – interview notes

Box 2, Folder 1

General correspondence, incoming, A-Z, 1952-1975

Box 2, Folder 2

General correspondence, outgoing, 1952-1980

Box 2, Folder 3

Correspondence on book about Burt by Hearnshaw, 1979-80

Box 2, Folder 4

Correspondence, outgoing re departmental work, 1967

Box 2, Folder 5

Correspondence, personal, including plans for research, 1940-78

Box 2, Folder 6

Bechtoldt, Harold P., correspondence, 1958-59

Box 2, Folder 7

Block, Jack, correspondence, 1972

Box 2, Folder 8

Cohen, Marshall, correspondence, 1973-74

Box 2, Folder 9

General correspondence on "Psychological Tests and Personnel Decisions", 1963-65

Box 2, Folder 10

General correspondence: test on the concept function

Box 2, Folder 11

Chapter 1.1 – Introduction The Function of Measurement Theory"

Box 2, Folder 12

Chapter 1.2 – "Reasoning from Mathematical Models"

Box 2, Folder 13

Chapter 2 – "Generalizability"

Box 2, Folder 14

Chapter 2.4 "Tests considered as stratified composites"

Box 2, Folder 15

Chapter 2.5 "Inferences to variables outside the universe"

Box 2, Folder 16

Chapter A "Some Introductory Statistical Concepts"

Box 2, Folder 17

Chapter A "Some Introductory Statistical Concepts"

Box 2, Folder 18

Chapter A "Some Introductory Statistical Concepts"

Box 2, Folder 19

Chapter AA "Joint distribution and composite scores"

Box 2, Folder 20

Chapter AA "Joint distribution and composite scores"

Box 3, Folder 1

Chapter B "Generalization from Observation to Universe"

Box 3, Folder 2

Chapter C "Components of observed score"

Box 3, Folder 3

Box 3, Folder 4

Miscellaneous chapter notes

Box 3, Folder 5

Comments on Aspects of Measurement Theory

Box 3, Folder 6

Comments on social improvement

Box 3, Folder 7

Education 354 [Evaluation] syllabus

Box 3, Folder 8

Notes for the outline of section II "How Social Actions evolve"

Box 3, Folder 9

Notes on construct validation

Box 3, Folder 10

Notes on "What are evaluations"

Box 3, Folder 11

Report to the incoming VTS chairman

Box 3, Folder 12

ONR London Reports (on European psychological studies), 1955-56

Box 3, Folder 13

ONR London Reports (on European psychological studies), 1956

Box 3, Folder 14

ONR London Reports (on European psychological studies), 1956

Box 3, Folder 15

Design for a National Longitudinal Study of School Desegregation: Volume II. Research Design and Procedures, 1974

Box 3, Folder 16

Comments on Rand Study 1973-74 [1 of 2]

Box 4, Folder 1

Comments on Rand Study 1973-74 [2 of 2]

Box 4

General correspondence, A-F, 1951-69

Box 4

General correspondence, G, 1963-69

Box 4

General correspondence, H, 1954-68

Box 4

General correspondence, I-L, 1962-69

Box 4

General correspondence, M, 1964-69

Box 4

General correspondence, N-P, 1964-69

Box 4

General correspondence, R, 1962-69

Box 4

General correspondence, Sa-Sm, 1965-69

Box 4

General correspondence, Sn-Sz, 1964-69

Box 4

General correspondence, T, 1965-69

Box 4

General correspondence, W-Z, 1962-69

Box 1, Folder 1

Snow, Richard – c.v. and bibliography

Box 1, Folder 2

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates – publisher, 1998-99

Box 1, Folder 3

Publication permissions, 1999

Box 1, Folder 4

File content [computer disks documents lists]

Box 1, Folder 5

Hierarchical models – Michael Seltzer

Box 1, Folder 7

Moss, Pamela – validity 1997

Box 1, Folder 8

Evers, Colin W. – validity

Box 1, Folder 9

Arkansas – email re figures, 1997

Box 1, Folder 10

Box 1, Folder 11

Box 1, Folder 12

R pages – G.Y. [Coefficient Alpha & Successor Procedures]

Box 1, Folder 13

Alpha tapes – transcripts

Box 1, Folder 14

Alpha tapes – transcripts (4th copy)

Box 1, Folder 15

Alpha tapes – transcripts (master copy)

Box 1, Folder 16

Alpha paper – yellow sheets

Box 1, Folder 17

Box 1, Folder 18

Lampe, James C., email 2001

Box 1, Folder 19

Guttman, Louis – articles

Box 1, Folder 20

Cornfield, J. & Tukey, J. W. – article

Box 1, Folder 21

Becker, Gilbert – LJC's comments on article, 1999

Box 1, Folder 22

Box 1, Folder 23

Bohrnstedt, George – article

Box 1, Folder 24

Cortina, Jose – article and correspondence, 1993

Box 1, Folder 25

Gustafsson, Jan-Eric – article

Box 1, Folder 26

Box 1, Folder 27

Livingston and Lewis – articles

Box 1, Folder 28

Cronbach, Linn, Brennan & Haertel manuscript – computer disks

Box 1, Folder 29

Mislevy, Robert – articles

Box 1, Folder 30

Shadish, William – article and letter, 1997

Box 1, Folder 31

Shoenfeld, Alan H. – article

Box 1, Folder 32

Box 1, Folder 33

Zinbarg, Richard E. – articles 1997

Box 1, Folder 34

Box 1, Folder 35

Box 1, Folder 36

LJC and Paul E. Meehl, "Construct Validity in Psychological Tests," 1955

Box 1, Folder 37

LJC, "Test ‘Reliability': Its Meaning and Determination," 1947

Box 1, Folder 38

LJC "The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology" 1957 and "Beyond the Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology" 1975

Box 1, Folder 39

LJC "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests" 1951

Box 1, Folder 40

Box 1, Folder 41

Box 1, Folder 42

Box 1, Folder 43

LJC and Lita Furby, "How We Should Measure ‘Change' – or Should We?" 1970

Box 1, Folder 44

LJC and Gary A. Schaeffer "Extensions of Personnel Selection Theory to Aspects of Minority Hiring" 1981

Box 1, Folder 45

Box 1, Folder 46

California Learning Assessment Report1994

Box 1, Folder 47

Books on Demand – correspondence 1989

Box 1, Folder 48

Caricature of LJC with accompanying letter by Prof. Fernandez-Ballesteros 1996

Box 1, Folder 49

Box 1, Folder 50

Box 1, Folder 51

Official papers, 1934-1980

Box 2, Folder 1

Box 2, Folder 2

Clauser MV, later MS ["A Strategy for Increasing the Generalizability of Scores for Performance Assessments Scored with Automated Scoring Algorithms"]

Box 2, Folder 3

Clauser, Brian – multivariate G theory

Box 2, Folder 4

Box 2, Folder 5

Clauser rerate [several articles]

Box 2, Folder 6

Clauser "A Comparison of the Generalizability of Scores Produced by Expert Raters and Automated Scoring Systems" with letter 1997 and disk

Box 2, Folder 7

National Board of Medical Examiners [correspondence & articles, 1995-2000]

Box 2, Folder 8

American Psychological Society – Cattell Award, 2001

Box 2, Folder 9

National Academy of Sciences

Box 2, Folder 10

Feuer, Michael, email 2001

Box 2, Folder 11

American Philosophical Society

Box 2, Folder 12

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards

Box 2, Folder 13

National Board of Medical Examiners 1998

Box 2, Folder 14

International Academy of Education

Box 2, Folder 15

National Academy of Education

Box 2, Folder 16

American Psychological Association / Azuma nomination 1994-95

Box 2, Folder 17

American Psychological Foundation

Box 2, Folder 18

Box 2, Folder 19

Educational Testing Service

Box 2, Folder 20

Professional correspondence post 10/2001 [1 one letter re review of manuscripts]

Box 2, Folder 21

Brennan comment [Robert L. Brennan articles and correspondence 1997]

Box 2, Folder 22

Cardinet, Jean, 1998, articles and correspondence

Box 2, Folder 23

Cardinet, Jean, assorted articles (1 of 2)

Box 2, Folder 24

Cardinet, Jean, assorted articles (2 of 2)

Box 2, Folder 25

Cook, Thomas D., article and letter

Box 2, Folder 26

Linn, Robert L., articles

Box 2, Folder 27

Meehl on construct validity

Box 2, Folder 28

Shadish, William R., articles

Box 2, Folder 29

Mandinach, Ellen B. Integrating Assessment and Instruction for Classrooms and Courses: Programs and Prospects for Research, 1999

Box 2, Folder 30

Brennan – Generalizability Theory (1 of 4)

Box 2, Folder 31

Brennan – Generalizability Theory (2 of 4)

Box 2, Folder 32

Brennan – Generalizability Theory (3 of 4)

Box 2, Folder 33

Brennan – Generalizability Theory (4 of 4)

Box 2, Folder 34

Box 2, Folder 35

Box 2, Folder 36

Box 2, Folder 37

Channing House Newsletter 1988-2001 (1 of 5)

Box 2, Folder 38

Channing House Newsletter 1988-2001 (2 of 5)

Box 2, Folder 39

Channing House Newsletter 1988-2001 (3 of 5)

Box 2, Folder 40

Channing House Newsletter 1988-2001 (4 of 5)

Box 2, Folder 41

Channing House Newsletter 1988-2001 (5 of 5)

Box 3, Folder 1

Box 3, Folder 2

Box 3, Folder 3

Box 3, Folder 4

Box 3, Folder 5

Box 3, Folder 6

Box 3, Folder 7

Box 3, Folder 8

Box 3, Folder 9

Box 3, Folder 10

Box 3, Folder 11

Box 3, Folder 12

Box 3, Folder 13

Box 3, Folder 14

Box 3, Folder 15

Box 3, Folder 16

Box 3, Folder 17

Box 3, Folder 18

Box 3, Folder 19

Box 3, Folder 20

Box 3, Folder 21

Box 3, Folder 22

Box 3, Folder 23

Box 3, Folder 24

Box 3, Folder 25

Box 3, Folder 26

Missing data from Iowa State

Box 3, Folder 27

Speech June 1993 [information for overhead figures?]

Box 3, Folder 28

Box 3, Folder 29

Box 3, Folder 30

Box 3, Folder 31

Miscellaneous April income charts

Box 3, Folder 32

Box 3, Folder 33

Box 3, Folder 34

Elder, Gene, correspondence

Box 3, Folder 35

Box 3, Folder 36

Comments on 1992 manuscript

Box 3, Folder 37

Box 3, Folder 38

Box 3, Folder 39

Box 3, Folder 40

Box 3, Folder 41

Box 3, Folder 42

Box 3, Folder 43

Box 3, Folder 44

Box 3, Folder 45

Box 3, Folder 46

Paper as delivered ["Acceleration among the Terman males: Correlates in midlife and after," 1992]

Box 3, Folder 47

Benbow, Camilla – correspondence 1992

Box 3, Folder 48

Box 3, Folder 49

Box 3, Folder 50

Box 3, Folder 51

Box 3, Folder 52

R. E. Snow book: Intro materials

Box 3, Folder 53

R. E. Snow book: chapter 1

Box 3, Folder 54

R. E. Snow book: chapter 2

Box 3, Folder 55

R. E. Snow book: chapter 3

Box 3, Folder 56

R. E. Snow book: chapter 4

Box 3, Folder 57

R. E. Snow book: chapter 5

Box 3, Folder 58

R. E. Snow book: chapter 6-7

Box 3, Folder 59

R. E. Snow book: chapter 8

Box 3, Folder 60

R. E. Snow book: appendix and references

Box 3, Folder 61

Box 3, Folder 62

Box 3, Folder 63

Box 4

Memorabilia, including medals, ID cards, and embosser

Box 5

Diplomas, certificates, etc.

Box 1

Fresno High School yearbooks, 1929, 1930, and Fresno State College yearbook, 1934

Box 1, Folder 1

Miscellaneous correspondence, 1986 and undated

Box 1, Folder 2

Copyright for Designing Educational Evaluations, 1979

Box 1, Folder 3

Roberts, Arthur, "Ballad of the London ONR"

Box 1, Folder 4

Box 1, Folder 5

Generalization theory – correspondence with Torsten Husen and Sandra Johnson, 1984, and paper by Johnson, 1984

Box 1, Folder 6

Patterson, G. R. – correspondence and paper, 1976

Box 1, Folder 7

Kane, Michael – correspondence and paper, 1982

Box 1, Folder 8

Allal, Linda – two papers and cover note, 1980-86

Box 1, Folder 9

Cardinet, Jean – correspondence and paper, 1981

Box 1, Folder 10

Efron, Bradley – Bootstrap material

Box 1, Folder 11

Weisberg, Herbert & Bryk, Anthony – correspondence and paper, 1976-79

Box 1, Folder 12

Reliability – correspondence, computer printouts and papers

Box 1, Folder 13

Rowley, Glenn L., "Application of Generalizability Theory to Observation Studies: Limitation," paper with LJC's notes, 1986

Box 1, Folder 14

Wittmann, Werner – 2 papers, 1984, 1986

Box 1, Folder 15

Cronbach – article on him in Spanish, ca. 1987

Box 1, Folder 16

P-D paper (Test Characteristics Affecting Validity and Equal Employment) – draft

Box 1, Folder 17

Barnow, Burt & Caine, Glen – correspondence and paper, 1977-78

Box 1, Folder 18

Heckman, James – correspondence and paper, 1980

Box 1, Folder 19

CRPF correspondence (Cronbach, Rogosa, Floden, Price), 1976-78

Box 1, Folder 20

Temptress versions – drafts and correspondence (D. Rogosa, 1978)

Box 2, Folder 1

ANCOVA – drafts of paper and correspondence (D. Rogosa) 1979

Box 2, Folder 2

"Strong Model" and ANCOVA – bibliography and seminar notes, 1977

Box 2, Folder 3

Keesling, Ward – correspondence and paper, 1974

Box 2, Folder 4

Correspondence re "Analysis of Covariance" paper, 1977-78

Chapters from Psychological Tests and Personnel Decisions (U Ill Press, 1957)

Accession ARCH-2003-218 Papers

Accession ARCH-2004-074 Papers

Accession ARCH-2008-033 Papers

Professional Papers, miscellaneous:

Lee Joseph Cronbach (April 22, 1916 – October 1, 2001) was an American educational psychologist who made contributions to psychological testing and measurement. At the University of Illinois, Urbana, Cronbach produced many of his works: the "Alpha" paper (Cronbach, 1951), as well as an essay titled The Two Disciplines of Scientific Psychology, in the American Psychologist magazine in 1957, where he discussed his thoughts on the increasing divergence between the fields of experimental psychology and correlational psychology (to which he himself belonged).

Cronbach was the president of the American Psychological Association, president of the American Educational Research Association, Vida Jacks Professor of Education at Stanford University and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences. Cronbach is considered to be "one of the most prominent and influential educational psychologists of all time." [1] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Cronbach as the 48th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[2]

Education and career[edit]

Born in Fresno, California, Cronbach was selected as a child to participate in Lewis Terman's long-term study of talented children.[3] He received a bachelor's degree from Fresno State College and a master's degree from the University of California, Berkeley. Cronbach had an interest in educational and psychological measurement due to Thurstone’s work on the measurement of attitudes. This work of Thurstone intrigued Cronbach; motivating him to complete and receive his doctorate in educational psychology from the University of Chicago in 1940.[1]

After teaching mathematics and chemistry at Fresno High School, Cronbach took faculty positions at the State College of Washington, the University of Chicago, and the University of Illinois, finally settling at Stanford University in 1964. In 1956 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association.[4]

Contributions to educational psychology[edit]

Cronbach's research can be clustered into three main areas: measurement theory, program evaluation, and instruction.[5] This includes several issues, such as the nature of the teaching-learning process, the measurement of variables describing instructional interactions, the evaluation of educational programs, and educational psychology’s aspiration as an emerging social science discipline. His contributions to measurement issues were of great importance to all educational psychologists. These contributions included improvements to the technology of psychometric modeling, as well as reformulations, which went beyond the mathematics of understanding the psychology of test performances.[1]

Educational psychologists have benefited from Cronbach's quest for a better explanation of learning in response to instruction; making countless contributions to educational psychology. Cronbach was able to sharpen the sensitivity of educational research, such as how different learners cope with the demands within different learning environments. He advocated the use of extensive local studies and field methods, producing useful narratives of teaching and learning. Cronbach's contributions include refining research questions which seek to understand the person-situation interactions in educational settings, recognizing the abandonment of strict scientism is in favour of a more pluralistic philosophical and empirical agenda, and emphasizing that the role of context is just as essential as improved interpretations of educational processes. Cronbach developed a framework for evaluation design, implementation and analysis.[1] He believed that the purpose of evaluation to provide constructive feedback for program implementers and clients was incorrect. On the contrary, he believed that it was the design, implementation and analysis which should reflect the feedback goal.

Cronbach has proven that research is valuable[dubious– discuss] - to the extent where research serves the purpose of improving some aspect of social reality. This allowed Cronbach to lay out guidelines - much like a road-map - for researchers and practitioners of educational psychology spreading awareness of the challenges and prospects of conducting program evaluations.[1]

"The special task of the social scientist in each generation is to pin down the contemporary facts. Beyond that, [Cronbach] shares with the humanistic scholar and the artist in the effort to gain insight into contemporary relationships, and to align the culture’s view of man with present realities. To know man as he is is no mean aspiration." [6]

Cronbach's alpha[edit]

Cronbach worked on the concept of reliability which had a huge impact on the field of educational measurement. His earliest work was the publication of Cronbach's alpha[7] a method for determining the reliability of educational and psychological tests. This allowed new interpretations of the index of reliability. Cronbach had created this formula which could be applied throughout a variety of tests and other measurement instruments - gaining an enormous amount of popularity among practitioners.[1] Cronbach's Alpha provided a measure of reliability from a single test administration thus showing that on repeated occasions, or even other parallel forms of testing, were not needed to estimate a test's consistency (this followed closely from the works of Kuder and Richardson). The Alpha is useful because not only is it easily calculated, but it is also quite general and can be applied universally - for example: dichotomously scored multiple-choice items or polytimous attitude scales.[5]

The generalizability theory (the "G" theory)[edit]

As Cronbach’s work progressed on reliability during the 1950s and 1960s it led to his work on the generalizability theory. He began his work with the aim to produce a handbook on measurement - allowing people to apply mathematical concepts to transform one’s behaviours and events into quantitative results. Cronbach believed that there were two flaws in the concept of taking observed test scores into true score and error components: he believed that true scores were "ill-defined" and errors were "all-inclusive". The Generalizability theory addresses the question of the relative influence on test performance based on different aspects of how tests are being administered to people. A question that would be addressed, for example, would be: "will students perform consistently on different occasions?" [1]

The Generalizability theory expanded when Cronbach became concerned that an undifferentiated error term covered up information about systematic variations which could be important in terms of test performance. With this in mind, he teamed up with two other members and developed a "random model" (introduced by the British statistician R.A. Fisher) where he was determined to figure out the complexities of error variance.[1] This "G" theory thus provided a combination of the psychological with the mathematical producing a comprehensive framework and statistical model which identified sources of measurement error.[5]

Cronbach's theory goes beyond examining consistency in a student’s relative standing in distribution – it recognizes and acknowledges that the particular item used in any given test is only a small indicator from a wider domain of knowledge. Only such extensions to reliability investigations were made possible by the Generalizability theory - which allowed researchers to address more realistic educational problems, and encouraged researchers to place substantial considerations when they made inquires to demonstrate that validity is important especially when evaluating information extracted from test scores.[1]

With the help from Paul Meehl, Cronbach placed the concept of validity theory in the centre of educational and psychological testing.[5] Cronbach & Meehl believed that "...it [is]imperative that psychologists make a place for [advocating construct validity] in their methodological thinking, so that its rationale, its scientific legitimacy, and its dangers may become explicit and familiar. This would be preferable to the widespread current tendency to engage in what actually amounts to construct validation research and use of constructs in practical testing, while talking an "operational" methodology which, if adopted, would force research into a mold it does not fit." [8] Cronbach acknowledged reliability as an important characteristic of a test, but believed that reliability and validity went hand-in-hand,and at times, 'trade-offs' were necessary in order to improve reliability. The paper, Construct Validity in Psychological Tests, compiled by both Cronbach and Meehl, represents their research efforts for over 50 years on validity.[5]


  1. ^ abcdefghiKupermintz, H. (2003). Lee J. Cronbach's contributions to educational psychology. In B. J. Zimmerman and D. H. Schunk (Eds.). Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, pp. 289-302
  2. ^Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139. 
  3. ^Friedman, Howard (2011). The Longevity Project. New York: Hudson Street Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-59463-075-0. 
  4. ^View/Search Fellows of the ASA, accessed 2016-07-23.
  5. ^ abcdeShavelson, R. J. (2003). Lee J. Cronbach. The American Philosophical Society, 147(4), 380-385.
  6. ^Cronbach, L. J. 1975. Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist 30:671–84.
  7. ^Cronbach, L. J. (1951) (originally developed by Louis Guttman in 1945),. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16,297-334.
  8. ^Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302.

Cronbach, L. J., & Shavelson, R. J. (2004). My current thoughts on coefficient alpha and successor procedures. Educational and Psychological Measurement 64, no. 3, pp. 391–418

Sternberg, Robert J. (Ed); Pretz, Jean E. (Ed). (2005). Cognition and Intelligence: Identifying the Mechanisms of the Mind; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 345 pp

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